The Park protects a scenario of rare beauty, its transition vegetation between the "edge of the Atlantic Forest" and the "beginning of the Cerrado", with a predominance of Campos de Altitude that are home to countless species of fauna and flora of the cerrado.
Canastra is also home to a large number of bird species, including some species endemic to the park, making it a hot-spot for birdwatchers.
Inside the park is located the historic source of the São Francisco River, in the municipality of São Roque de Minas. The São Francisco River, popularly known as Velho Chico, is one of the most important watercourses in Brazil and South America.
In the region around the Serra da Canastra, which reaches an extension of 700 kilometers and forms the 'Rota do Queijo da Canastra', about 800 families make their living from cheese production in one of the most remote regions of the State of Minas Gerais.